Posted in: languages

Word Roots: F

F, Y, V, U, W: Waw

I. Digamma – finger, club, hook



  • We were all frisked in the airport. 
  • Lambs frisked in the fields. 

forge, fend, five, four , fix, farm, feel, food, factory, figure, fight, finish, future, force, fort, festival, flirt, find, 

II. F 流动感 / 拟声词 onomatopoeia = onoma (name + poeia = to make [poem] )  

风/气:flurry, flow, fly, fan, flu, fall, free, fast, first, front, 

火:fire, flame, fury, fry, fever, flash, fusion

水:fulfill, flow, fill, flood, fluid, float, ford, fluent, 

缓慢动感:field, form, firm, fossil, father, family, friend

bher (1) 

  1. to carry
  2. to bear children; to produce


    1. fer [b = p & ph = f]
    2. ber
    3. barrow [n. frame for carrying a load]
    4. bear
    5. bring
    6. bier
    7. birth
    8. burden [n. a load]

fer 手指延伸的地方, 双手伸开

prefer, transfer, refer, differ, infer, proliferate, indifferent, vociferous,


  1. “to bring together,” figuratively “to compare; consult, deliberate, converse/talk over,”  “examine by comparison;” “consult together on some special subject;”
  2. “bestow as a gift or permanent possession,”

[intransitive] confer (with somebody) (on/about something) to discuss something with somebody, in order to exchange opinions or get advice

  • He wanted to confer with his colleagues before reaching a decision.
  • conference

[transitive] confer something (on/upon somebody) to give somebody an award, a university degree or a particular honour or right

  • An honorary degree was conferred on him by Oxford University in 2019.
  • conferment


  1. “to delay, put off, postpone,” [de- “away from” (see dis-) ]
  2. deferral = deferment [a putting off, postponement]
  3. “yield, offer, render,”  “leave to another’s judgment or determination,” “refer (a matter) to someone” [ “down, away” (see de-) ]
  4. deference, deferential



ferret, furtive




suffering (trial of ordeal, tribulation)

  • auriferous, aquifer, conifer, carboniferous
  • circumference: “line that bounds a circle” (loosely, “any boundary line”); to lead around, take around, carry around
  • periphery: “atmosphere around the earth,” “circumference, outer surface, line round a circular body,”

cumbersome: large and heavy; difficult to carry

proliferate, proliferation, pyrophoric, semaphore,  

fest (feast, holidays) 手舞足蹈,喧闹

fete, feast, gabfest, fiesta, festoon, festal


*dhē-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to set, put.”

Latin facere “to make, do; perform; bring about;”


  1. -the-
  2. fac
  3. hac



chafechauffeur; condiment;

do (v.); doom-domdumadeeddeem; indeed

efface; facadefacefacetfacial-facientfacilefacilitatefacsimile

factfaction (n.1) “political party;” -factionfactitiousfactitivefactorfactoryfactotumfacultyfashionfeasiblefeatfeaturefecklessfetish

-ficfordoforfeithacienda;  incondite; infect;   misfeasance;  multifarious;  officeofficinalomnifariousorifice;  perfect; pluperfectpontifexprefectprima facieproficientprofit;  reconditerefectorysacrificesalmagundisamadhi




synthesis;   hypothecatehypothesis; metathesis; antithesis; parenthesis; prosthesis;

purdah;  anathema; apothecary


tayticking (n.); 

  • difficult = dif (dis) 否定 + fic (do) 干 + ult (极度)
  • office =  of 加强 + fic (宗教领域 – 政府机构 – 世俗场合); officer, official, officious, butt in, nosy
  • sacrifice
  • affect (v.1) “make a mental impression on;” 

    affect (v.2) “make a pretense of;” affection

     effect; efficient;  efficacious

  • affect = af 加强 + fect, disaffect, disaffected, affective, affectionate, affectation, 【做作,动作本身】
  • effect = af (ex) 出,出来 + fect, effective, effectuate, efficacy, efficacious, efficient, [做的结果]
  • defect, defection, deficient, 
  • infect, infection, infectious
  • perfect, perfection, confection
  • fact, factoid, factor, factory, factual, factually,  factitious, artifact = art 技能 + fact, manufacture, manufactory, olfactory, factotum
  • artifactartifice
  • faction, factious, petrifaction, putrefaction, rarefaction
  • beatificbeneficebeneficencebeneficialbenefit;  benefactor, benefaction,
  • malefactormalfeasance
  • manufacture
  • defacedefeasancedefeatdefectdeficientdifficulty
  • facile, facility, facilitate
  • facsimile
  • profit, proficient, fiction, fictive, discomfit, comfit
  • suffice, sufficient, 
  • magnificent, 
  • feat, feature, feasible, 
  • comfit;  discomfit;  confectionconfetticounterfeit
  • forfeit, counterfeit, surfeit, feign, feint

fig (shape): effigy, figment

figur (form, shape): figure, configuration, figurehead, figurative, figurine, prefigure, 

funct (perform, complete): function, defunct, fungible, perfunctory, 

-fy (make, do): fygratify satisfy;, putrefy;, rarefy, stupefy amplify; certify;  dignify; verifyqualifyrarefy; edificeedify;  rectify; justify; petrify; modifymollify; notifynullify;

fan: fanatic, fanaticism, profane

flu (flow, stream, glide): affluence, confluence, mellifluous, superfluous, fluorescent, flux, effluvia

foli (leaf): 风吹落叶 defoliate, exfoliate, foliage, portfolio

fortun (luck, chance): 风吹来的东西 fortune, fortuity, fortunate, fortuitous, fortuneteller

fug (flee) = f + u + g : refugee, fugitive, centrifugal, fugue, subterfuge 

febr: fever, febrile, feverish

ferv (boil, be hot): fervor, fervid, effervesce, effervescent, fervent

fer (wild): fierce, ferocious, vociferous, 

flagr (burn): flagrant, conflagration

flam (flame): aflame, inflame, inflammation, flamboyant, flamingo 

fulg (shine, flash): refulgent, effulgent

fur (rage, be mad): fury, furious, furor, infuriate

felic: happy, lucky


fin (end, form a boundary): finite, refine, define, confine, finesse, affinity, infinitesimal, 

fili (daughter, son): filial, affiliate

form (shape): formative, formulate, nonconformist, format, formula, reform, cruciform, cuneiform, informant

fund (bottom, depths, basis): profound, flounder, profundity, 

fut (check, restrain): refute, confute

front: confront, affront (insult, atrocity), frontier, effrontery (impudence, impertinence)

fend: fend for oneself, fend off, parry off, ward off

van = one 第一, 前面,void, vain, vant, vac, vacu, wan

van, vanish, vanishing, vanity, advance, advantage, vanguard, vantage (shortage), vanward, vain, vainglory, vault, vaunt, vaunted, evanescent (vanishing, evaporating),

vac: vacuum, vacate, vacation, vacant, vacuity, evacuation, evacuate, vacuous, vacancy, vacant, evacuee. 

void (empty space) : void, avoid, avoidance, devoid of (lacking), avoidable, avoidance, 

wan (lessen) : wane, wanton, want, wanting

vent = wind;

  • venīre, “to come.”
  • vertere, “to turn.”
  • vehere “to carry.”

风,来,去, 走,  转:

VENI VIDI VICI – Julius Caesar 我来了,我看见,我征服


  • invent, venture, venture capital, venturous,
  • adverse, advertise, anniversary, divert, subvert, convert, versatile
  • advent, appearance, emergence, dawn
  • adventitious, adventure, adventurism, adventuresome, revenue,
  • convent, convene (convoke), convener, convention,
  • intervene, intervenor, intervention, intervening,
  • venue, avenue,
  • circumvent, circumvention,
  • contravene, contravention,
  • event, eventual, eventuate, eventuality, eventful,
  • prevent, prevenient, provenance,
  • ventilate, ventilator, vent-duct, convenient, souvenir, covenant, supervene, 

via (way): trivial (three + way) [paltry – poor, nugatory], trifle, viaduct

vend, vendor, venal, venality

vad, vas 强行,闯入

invade, invasion, invasive, evade, invade, pervade, devastation, devastate (raze to the ground), 

wad: 走路费劲,吃力地走

wade, wader, waddle, 

vag (wander, roam, rove): 没有目的的走,溜达

vague, vagary. vagaries, vagarious, vagrant, vagrancy, vagabondage, vagabond, extravagant, extravaganza, divagate (stray, digress), divagation, noctivagant, 

vec: vector, invective, convective, convection

veh: vehicle, inveigh against (fulminate), vehement, vehicular

vener (worship, revere, honor): venerate, venerable, veneration

ver (fear): revere, irreverent, reverent, reverend

ver (truth): aver, verity, very, verily, verify, verdict, veracious, veritable, verisimilitude, veracity

verg: converge, diverge, verge, 

vert: advert, divert, convert, controvert, animadvert, pervert, extrovert, introvert, invert, vertigo, subvert (overturn), incontrovertible, vortex, revert, advertorial, inadvertent, avert, 

vestig: footprint

  • vestige: the last vestiges of colonialism
  • investigate
  • vestigial: He felt a vestigial flicker of anger from last night.


  1. “to speak.” 
  2. “voice, sound, utterance, language, word;” 


  • voc 
  • vac
  • vacas-“word;” 

epic:  “a word; a tale, story; promise, prophecy, proverb; poetry in heroic verse”


vocabularyvocal;  vociferatevociferousvoicevouchvoxvowel.

voc (call), vok (call, call upon): vocat (called, called upon), vouch (call, call upon)

volat (fly, move swiftly, speed): volley (barrage, bombardment), volatile


volv 滚动,转动 (圆半径不变):  evolve, evolvement, devolve (delegate), revolver, convolve, involve, involvement, involved, 

volu 涡流,漩涡 (圆半径变大/小): voluble (wordy, verbose), volubility, volute, volution, convolute, involute, involution,

evolution, evolutional, evolutive, devolution, convoluted, circumvolution,

revolution, counterrevolution, revolute, revolutionary, revolutionize 

volume, voluminous, voluminousness, volumetric

volt 卷: revolt, revolting, 


vor (eat): devour, voracious, voracity, omnivore, carnivore, herbivore, insectivore, 

vot (promise, pledge) T-mark: vow, devote, voter, devout, votary

val (be strong, be of value): valid, available, valiant, valorous, prevail, ambivalent, equivalent, convalescent, evaluate, prevalent, valedictorian

vibr: vibe, vibrant, verve (zest, buoyant),

  • vibrate: reverberate, resonate, resound, pulsate, pulse, palpitate, waver, quiver, thunder

verberare (to whip, to lash): verber, reverberate (resound, repel, echo, reflect), 

vig (act, be lively): vigor, vigil, vigilance, vigilante, surveillance, 

viv: vivacious, convivial (congenial, outgoing), vivify, revive, vivacity, viability

virt: virtue, virtuoso (master, prodigy)

vir (poison): viral, virus, virulent, retrovirus, virologist, virulence, 

vic: vice, vicious, vitiate, vituperate (revile, upbraid, berate)

vin (win): evince (reveal, show), convince, victor, evict, invincible, vanquish, vindicate

vin (wine): vintage, vignetter, vine, viniculture, vineyard, 


view: purview

vulg (make common, publish): 

  • vulgar, vulgarize, vulgarism, vulgarity, 
  • divulge (reveal), promulgate, promulgation

vuls: convulse (jerk, go into spasms), convulsion, revulsion (repulsion, repugnance)

vap (steam, spoiled, flat – 气体无色无味): vapor, vaporize, vapid (insipid), vaporous, evaporate, evaporation

vari (different, diverse): vary, variegate, variation, variance, variety, 

veil (curtain): veil, unveil, reveal

verb (word):

  • verb, adverb,
  • proverb, proverbial, verbiage, verbal, verbatim (word for word), verbose, verbosity, verbalize, 

verd (green): verdant, verdure

vest: invest, vested, divest, travesty (distortion), divestiture, 

veter: veteran, inveterate (hardcore), inveteracy, veterinary, veterinarian, 

vid (see): provident, providential

vis (see): envision, proviso, provisional, visage, envisage, improvise, 

vey (see, look at): survey, purvey (sell, provide), clairvoyant (seer, oracle/prophet, crystal gazer), 


wast (desolate, laid waste): wastrel

vestig (footprint): after wind: vestige, vestigial, investigate

und (wave): inundate (deluge), redound (be conducive to),  surround, abundance, redundant (glut – lot, superfluous, plethora), superabundance, abound, undulate, undulant,

us (use): usurp (abdicate, abjure, cede), peruse (scrutinize), usury, 

util (useful): utilitarian, utilize

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