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Word Roots: P

MOUTH

pel (v.), puls (adj., n.)  (pull, push) 

  • repel, Likes repel. Opposites attract. 
  • repulsive, repulsive force, a repulsive smell
  • repellent (adj. n.) insect repellent, water repellent
  • impel, impel sb. to do sth.; sb. feel impelled to do sth. 
  • impulse buying/shopping; on an impulse, 
  • compel: compel sb. to do sth. 
  • compulsive (obsessive) gambler/liar/eating disorder
  • compulsory = mandatory: compulsory education

pol, pon, pos, port (pul):

  • extrapolate, interpolate, pole, polar
  • opponent, proponent, exponent, component
  • pore, porous, emporium, porosity, osteoporosis
  • pose, repose, depose, dispose, compose, expose, impose, propose, interpose, transpose, 
  • Prolactin releases, disposing you toward sleep. 
  • Man proposes, but God disposes. 
  • disposed, indispose, predispose, composed, discomposed, composure, discomposure, imposing
  • postulate, expostulate
  • import, export, port, deport, transport, portable, portfolio, porter, portage, important, 
  • comport, disport, rapport, support, report, portly
  • opportunity, inopportune, importunate, opportune, importune, 

puls (pushed):

  • pulse, pulsate, pulsar, pulsating,
  • drum- throb/thrum/thump/thud/pound
  • repulse, impulse

ped (child): encyclopedia, cyclopedia, pedant, pedantic, pedantry, pedagogy, pedagogue, pediatrician, pediatrics, 

pod (foot): antipodal, Antipodes, podium, tripod, podiatry, podiatrist, cephalopod (octopus)

ped (foot): E-extend, symmetrical,  

  • pedal,  pedestal, peddle, (petal), pedestrian, biped, bipedal, pedometer, centipede, millipede
  • pedigree,
  • impediment, impede,
  • expedite, expedient, expeditious,  expedition

pal (be pale): pale, appalling, pallid, appall, pall, pallor

palp (stroke, caress, touch): palpate, impalpable, palpable, 

palpitate, palpitation,

pan (bread): pantry, companion, appanage

pan- (all): pan (v.), panorama, pandemic, pancreas, panacea, pantomime, pandemonium,  panoply, pantheon, panegyric,

parl (talk, speak) parliament

parley, parlance, parlor,

pass: compass,  encompass, impasse, trespass, surpass, underpass

past (dough, paste) – pasta, pasty, 

paste, pastel, pastiche, pastry,  patisserie

path (feeling, disease): pathogenic, pathos, sociopath, psychopath

patr (father): 

expatriate, repatriate, (extradite,) patriarch, patron, patronize, patronage, patronizing, patriotic, patriot, patriotism, patrimony, patricide, patrician, 

par: beside, alongside, related, equal

  • compare, comparative, comparison, incomparable
  • par: stock face value
  • parity, disparity
  • disparage: regard as being of little worth
  • disparate: essentially different in kind, not allowing comparison
  • nonpareil: having no match or equal; unrivaled
  • parable: a moral story
  • parody: a humorous imitation
  • paraphrase
  • parenthetical: a remark further explaining or qualifies information
  • paragraph
  • paragon: a best example of a kind
  • parochial: having a limited or narrow outlook or scope
  • paradigm: a model or an example
  • paradigmatic
  • paradox: a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or unrealistic by may surprisingly express a possible truth
  • paranoia: extreme distrust of others
  • Paraphernalia: miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity
  • paralyze = para + ly (untie) + ze 
  • paralysis
  • paramecium
  • parasite
  • paramedic
  • parabola
  • hyperbola
  • parallel, unparalleled, parallelogram
  • parameter:
    noun: parameter; plural noun: parameters
    1. a numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operation.
      “the transmission will not let you downshift unless your speed is within the lower gear’s parameters”
      • MATHEMATICS
        a quantity whose value is selected for the particular circumstances and in relation to which other variable quantities may be expressed.
      • STATISTICS
        a numerical characteristic of a population, as distinct from a statistic of a sample.
      • (in general use) a limit or boundary that defines the scope of a particular process or activity.
        “they set the parameters of the debate”

par (make, prepare)

  • pare: to reduce or lessen
  • parry: to ward (guard) something off or deflect (divert) it
  • ===
  • apparel, appareled
  • apparatus
  • parachute
  • parade, repair, irreparable
  • reparation: compensation for an insult or injury
  • prepare, preparatory
  • parasol: a handheld collapsible source of shade, umbrella
  • parlay: stake winnings from one bet on a subsequent wager. 
  • rampart, parapet: a low wall along the edge of a roof or a balcony
  • ====
  • apparat: the administrative system of a communist party. 
  • apparatchik: a member of a Communist Party apparat, a very loyal subordinate to someone or something, especially to a particular political organization or leader

par (come to sight) parent

  • parent, parentage, parental, parenthood, postpartum
  • parturition: the action of giving birth to young, childbirth
  • antepartum: occurring not long before childbirth
  • multipara: a mother who has had more than one pregnancy resulting in viable offspring.
  • oviparous: producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been laid by the parent. 
  • viviparous: bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent.  
  • transparent: transparently, transparency
  • apparition: something that is unexpectedly appears that is either a ghost or ghostly
  • repertoire: a performer’s ready stock or range of pieces that he can perform. 
  • repertory

pec = mouth + extend + bite (peck, pick)

peccadillo, impeccable, peculiar, peculiarity,

STRANGESINGULARUNIQUEPECULIARECCENTRICERRATICODDQUAINTOUTLANDISH mean departing from what is ordinary, usual, or to be expected. STRANGE stresses unfamiliarity and may apply to the foreign, the unnatural, the unaccountable.  a journey filled with strange sights  SINGULAR suggests individuality or puzzling strangeness.  a singular feeling of impending disaster  UNIQUE implies singularity and the fact of being without a known parallel.  a career unique in the annals of science  PECULIAR implies a marked distinctiveness.  the peculiar status of America’s First Lady  ECCENTRIC suggests a wide divergence from the usual or normal especially in behavior.  the eccentric eating habits of preschoolers  ERRATIC stresses a capricious and unpredictable wandering or deviating.  a friend’s suddenly erratic behavior  ODD applies to a departure from the regular or expected.  an odd sense of humor  QUAINT suggests an old-fashioned but pleasant oddness.  a quaint fishing village  OUTLANDISH applies to what is uncouth, bizarre, or barbaric.  outlandish fashions of the time 

pecuni (money): peculate (embezzle), peculation, pecuniary, impecunious, 

pen (hang, weigh, pound): pendant, penalty

  • pend, pendant, pendent (adj.), penchant, pensive
  • append, appendage, appendices, appendix, 
  • impend, impending, 
  • dispense, 
  • expend, expenditure, expense,  expensive, 
  • compendium, compendious
  • compensate, compensatory, recompense
  • propensity
  • suspense, suspenseful, 

penitent, penitence, impenitent, penitentiary, penance, subpoena, repent, repentant, 

PAYCOMPENSATEREMUNERATESATISFYREIMBURSEINDEMNIFYREPAYRECOMPENSE mean to give money or its equivalent in return for something. PAY implies the discharge of an obligation incurred.  paid their bills  COMPENSATE implies a making up for services rendered.  an attorney well compensated for her services  REMUNERATE clearly suggests paying for services rendered and may extend to payment that is generous or not contracted for.  promised to remunerate the searchers handsomely  SATISFY implies paying a person what is required by law.  all creditors will be satisfied in full  REIMBURSE implies a return of money that has been spent for another’s benefit.  reimbursed employees for expenses  INDEMNIFY implies making good a loss suffered through accident, disaster, warfare.  indemnified the families of the dead miners  REPAY stresses paying back an equivalent in kind or amount.  repay a favor with a favor  RECOMPENSE suggests due return in amends, friendly repayment, or reward.  passengers were recompensed for the delay 

CONCISETERSESUCCINCTLACONICSUMMARYPITHYCOMPENDIOUS mean very brief in statement or expression. CONCISE suggests the removal of all that is superfluous or elaborative.  a concise description  TERSE implies pointed conciseness.  a terse reply  SUCCINCT implies the greatest possible compression.  a succinct letter of resignation  LACONIC implies brevity to the point of seeming rude, indifferent, or mysterious.  an aloof and laconic stranger  SUMMARY suggests the statement of main points with no elaboration or explanation.  a summary listing of the year’s main events  PITHY adds to SUCCINCT or TERSE the implication of richness of meaning or substance.  a comedy sharpened by pithy one-liners  COMPENDIOUS applies to what is at once full in scope and brief and concise in treatment.  a compendious dictionary 

pen- (almost, nearly): peninsula

penury, penurious, penultimate, antepenultimate, penumbra

pet (seek, attack, request, go for) 

  • compete, competent, incompetent
  • petition
  • repetition
  • appetite, appetizer
  • perpetuate
  • petulant (cross, sulky, insolent, peevish, captious, capricious, tetchy, cantankerous ): he was moody and petulant. 
  • petulant

    petulant person behaves in an unreasonable and childish way, especially because they cannot get their own way or what they want.

  • competent

    If someone is competent in a job, they are able and skilled enough to do it well.

  • perpetuate

    When you perpetuate something, you keep it going or continue it indefinitely.

  • competition

    A competition is a match or game between people; each side tries its hardest to win.

  • appetite

    a feeling of craving something

  • appetizer

    food or drink to stimulate the appetite (usually served before a meal or as the first course)

  • compete

    compete for something

  • competence

    the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually

  • incompetent

    legally not qualified or sufficient

  • perpetual

    continuing forever or indefinitely

  • perpetuity

    the property of being perpetual (seemingly ceaseless)

  • petition

    write a petition for something to somebody

  • repetition

    an event that repeats

  • repetitive

    repetitive and persistent

  •  

per (through) = mouth + extend + head (words go through head)

  • permeate, pervasive, impervious
  • imperious
  • peregrination = per + egrin (path) + ation
  • perspire = per + spire (breathe)
  • perjury
  • perish
  • a great part of his army perished of hunger and disease.
  • permit = per + mit (send)
  • perforate = per + for (outside) + ate
  • perspicacity = per + spic + acity
  • obstreperous = ob + stre (street) + per (appear) + ous

per-: thoroughly, around (away from the center)

  • peruse: scrutinize, inspect; it is always advisable to peruse legal documents. 
  • perturb: disturb; imperturbable
  • perpetrate: a crime has been perpetrated against the state.
  • pertinent
  • perfidious = per+fid (trust) +ious
  • peremptory (overbearing)
  • pernicious: the pernicious influences of the mass media
  • perfunctory: he gave a perfunctory nod.
  • pellucid: pellucid waters
  • perennial
  • persiflage (banter, raillery)
  • percussion
  • repercussion = re + per + cuss (strike)
  • perquisite (perk) = per + quisit (seek, ask) + e
  • requisite, acquisitive, require
  • perplexed
  • perpetuate = per + pet (attack, seek, go for) 
  • pertinacious
  • He worked with a pertinacious resistance to interruptions. 
  • peroration = per + orat (talk) + ion 
  • imperceptible

MASTERFULDOMINEERINGIMPERIOUSPEREMPTORYIMPERATIVE mean tending to impose one’s will on others. MASTERFUL implies a strong personality and ability to act authoritatively.  her masterful personality soon dominated the movement  DOMINEERING suggests an overbearing or arbitrary manner and an obstinate determination to enforce one’s will.  children controlled by domineering parents  IMPERIOUS implies a commanding nature or manner and often suggests arrogant assurance.  an imperious executive used to getting his own way  PEREMPTORY implies an abrupt dictatorial manner coupled with an unwillingness to brook disobedience or dissent.  given a peremptory dismissal  IMPERATIVE implies peremptoriness arising more from the urgency of the situation than from an inherent will to dominate.  an imperative appeal for assistance 

peri- (around, near, about) perimeter, period

perihelion, perigee, periphery, peripheral, peripatetic, periphrastic, periscope. 

person (character): 

persona, impersonator, impersonal, personable, personification, impersonate, personage, personify

phan (cause to appear, show) 

  • sycophant, epiphany, epiphanic, cellophane, 
  • phantom, phantasm, diaphanous
  • emphasis, phase, 

phem (saying, speech) 

blasphemy, euphemism

phenom, phenomenon, phenomenal, phenomena, 

phil (love)

  • philter = aphrodisiac (Aphrodite) 
  • philander = phil + ander (male) , philanderer, promiscuous
  • philanthropy, philosophy, bibliophile, philately, philatelist,  philology, Philadelphia (adelphos – brother); 
  • hemophilia, hemophiliac
  • Anglophile, Francophile, Russophile, Hispanophile, Germanophile, Nipponophile, Sinophile

phor, pher (fe – waw + extend) a carrying

  • metaphor, euphoria, semaphore
  • pheromone, phosphorescent (fluorescence) 
  • paraphernalia (belongings, furnishings, appurtenances), periphery, peripheral, 

phrase (explain)

paraphrase (beside), periphrasis (around), phraseology

phyt: plant

zoophyt, saprophyte, neophyte 

pi (cleanse, make) – pity

  • piety, pious, piousness,
  • expiate
  • pity, propitiate

PACIFYAPPEASEPLACATEMOLLIFYPROPITIATECONCILIATE mean to ease the anger or disturbance of. PACIFY suggests a soothing or calming.  pacified by a sincere apology  APPEASE implies quieting insistent demands by making concessions.  appease their territorial ambitions  PLACATE suggests changing resentment or bitterness to goodwill.  a move to placate local opposition  MOLLIFY implies soothing hurt feelings or rising anger.  a speech that mollified the demonstrators  PROPITIATE implies averting anger or malevolence especially of a superior being propitiated his parents by dressing up  CONCILIATE suggests ending an estrangement by persuasion, concession, or settling of differences conciliating the belligerent nations 

pic, pig (paint, portray)

depict, pigment, pigmentation, pictorial, pixel, pixelate, picturesque

pictograph: cuneiform – Mesopo’tamia, ‘hieroglyph – Egypt

pil (pile, pillar) pile (v., n.), compile, pillory

pin: pinnacle, panache, pennon, penant, pinion, pinhole, pincushion

plac, plais  (please, suit, be acceptable)

  • placid, placebo, placating
  • placate: make sb less angry
  • implacability, implacable
  • complacent: you cannot afford to be complacent about security.
  • plea, please, pleasure, pleasant, pleasurable
  • pleasantry
  • complaisant: When unharness, Northern dogs are peaceful and complaisant. 

plas (form, mold): plastic

plasma, cytoplasm

plat (flat, broad): plate, breastplate, plateau, platonic, platinum, platelet, platter, platypus, platitude, boilerplate (hackneyed)

plaud, plod (clap, applaud)

applaud, plausible,  explode, explosive, implosion, implode, plaudit

===

ple (fill): plenty, plethora, plenteous

  • complete, complement, <compliment>, replete (adj. v.), replenish (v.), deplete,
  • pleonasm (see with one’s eyes)expletive
  •  plenary, plenipotentiary,

plex (weave): complex, perplexed, complexion, plexus, multiplex

===

pli (fold, bend): pliers  

plight (n.), pliant = pliable, pliancy, suppliant = supplicant, 

complicate, duplicate, supplicant, explicate (explain), complicity, complicit and its accomplices, implicate, applicant

comply, compliance, compliant, accomplish, 

plor (weep over)  deplore, explore, implore, 

ploy (fold) : employ, exploit, deploy

plus (more): nonplus (v.) 

Danne was nonplussed by such an odd question. 

pop = mouth + eye + mouth :

  1. 大众: populace, population, populous, populate, unpopulated, overpopulate, depopulate, depopulation, 
  2. 出现 – 发展 – 普及 pop, lollipop, popular, popularity, popularize, popularizer, popularization, populism, 
  3. 拟声: popcorn 

pot = 拟声,水罐摔到地上的声音

capacity, 

Harry 攻击 Potter 能力的人

  1. 喝;: potable, potation
  2. 能力: potent, potency, potential, impotent, impotency, multipotent, omnipotent, prepotent, potentiality, plenipotentiary, potentate
  3. potpourri

potent: powerful, capable 

  • potentate

    potentate is a ruler who has great power over people.

  • plenipotentiary

    A plenipotentiary is someone who has full power to take action or make decisions on behalf of their government in a foreign country.

  • omnipotent

    An omnipotent being or entity is unlimited in its power.

  • potency

    Something’s potency is how powerful or effective it is.

  • potential

    potential event is likely to happen, is possible, or can occur.

  • impotence

    the quality of lacking strength or power

  • impotent

    lacking power or ability

  • omnipotence

    the state of being omnipotent

  • potent

    having great influence

  • potentiality

    the inherent capacity for coming into being

point: appoint, disappoint, pointed, viewpoint, standpoint, counterpoint, pointy, 

ponder (pound): ponder, ponderous, preponderance, preponderate (to exceed in weight, influence, power, or importance)

possess: possess, possession,  repossess, prepossess,  

pover (poor): poverty, impoverished, pauper, pauperism

pract (do): practice, pragmatic, praxis

prehend, prise (seize):

  • apprentice, apprehend, apprehensive, reprehend (reprimand), reprehensible, comprehend
  • comprise, (constitute, consist of, composed of, made up of, omit – omission), apprise, appraise 
  • The country comprises 20 states. 
  • The exhibition consists of 180 drawings. 
  • Single parents constitute a great portion of poor. 

pris (seize hold of) comprise, apprise, reprisal, prison, reprise, reprieve (relief), enterprise, surprise

preci (precious): appreciate, preciosity (fastidious)

press: express, depress, suppress, impress, compress, repress = again press, pressurize, oppress, 

prim (first): prim, primeval, primordial, primary, prime, primate, 

priv  (without, individual) private

  • private, privatize, privilege, deprive, deprivation
  • privation: If you suffer privation, you live without many of the basic things required for a comfortable life. 
  • privy: hidden from general view or use. 

proach: reproach

prob (prove, test, approve): proof, probe, prove, reproof, reprove, probate, probation, reprobate, approve, approbation, disapprobation, probity

probable, probability,

proper, property

  • apropos, appropriate (adj.), propriety
  • proprietary, proprietor, proprietorship,
  • appropriate (v.), appropriation, expropriate, 
  • malapropism

pud: mouth + waw + door 

  • repudiate: refuse to accept 
  • She has repudiated policies associated with previous party leaders. 
  • repudiation
  • impudence

pugn (quarrel, argue): impugn, repugnance, pugnacity, pugilist, 

pun (punish), punct (pinted, stabbed, pierced)

  • punish, punitive, impunity
  • punctuate, punctuation
  • punctilious
  • puncture, acupuncture
  • punctual, punctuality
  • punctilio
  • compunction: spend money without compunction
  • poignancy

purg (clean): pure, purge, purgative, expurgate, 

putr (rotten): putrefy, putrid

put (think, consider): 

  • putative
  • repute, depute, impute, dispute, compute, disrepute, 
  • computation, disputation, disputatious, undisputed, indisputable, deputy, deputation, reputed, reputedly, reputation, disrepute, disreputable
  • depute = away + think
    appoint or instruct (someone) to perform a task for which one is responsible.
    “she had been deputed to look after him while Clarissa was away”
  • impute
    represent (something, especially something undesirable) as being done, caused, or possessed by someone; attribute.
    “the crimes imputed to Richard”
  • repute:
    be generally regarded to be or as being (but not definitely the case).
    “he’s reputed to earn $7m per annum”
  • putative:
    generally considered or reputed to be.
    “the putative author of the book”

pro:, proliferate, prolific, proliferation

prole = proletarian, proletariate (working class),

Owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labor, the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. “Elegy for the Floating City

mand (order): reprimand, imprimatur, mandatory 

precarious, deprecate, imprecate

pred: predator, prey, depredation,

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