Posted in: languages, Uncategorized

Word Roots: R


rad (ray): radio, radish  == ray, root

head/king is a glowing figure in a country and a root for a tribe, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, David. 

radius, radar, X-ray, radio, rayon

radiate, irradiate, radiant, radiance, radiation, radiator, radioactive, radiology, radial, 

rud (root, unskilled, untaught): rude,  rudiment, erudite, erudition,

eradicate (uproot, extirpate), radical, deracinate

ranc (be rotten, stink)

rancor, rancid, rancorous

rap, rav (grab, grasp): g is dropped.  b – > p 

rapt, rapture, rapturous, rapacious (grasping), rapine, rapscallion, rapid, rape,

ravage, ravenous (raven), ravish, ravishing, ravine,

rupt (burst): abrupt, corrupt, bankrupt, erupt, interrupt, disrupt, rupture,

ras (scrape, scratch): raze, razor, rascal, erase, erasion,  rash (rush), abrade, abrasive, abrasion,

  • Villages were razed to the ground. 

rub (rash-red): rubric, ruby, rouge, rubella

rod, ros: erode, rodent, corrode,  corrosion, erosion, [rostrum]

rat (think): rate, ratio, ratify, ratification, ration, rational, ratiocination, rationale,

Burst Open Words with “Rupt”

The Latin root rupt means “burst.” By the end of this roots podcast you will be “bursting” with words that feature the root rupt, so ignore all disruptions during the next couple of minutes!

Have you ever seen a volcano in the process of erupting? If you have witnessed a volcanic eruption, you’d not soon forget the ash and lava “bursting” out of the volcano! Imagine a volcano that has been dormant for centuries suddenly going off; this impressive event would seriously disrupt the normal activities of people who lived nearby, “bursting” them apart from their daily routine. This kind of interruption or “bursting” between what is going on would probably upset most people, especially if it were abrupt, that is, a sudden “bursting” away from the usual flow of events with no advance warning.

Imagine how your hearing would be affected if your eardrum were to rupture, or “burst.” Imagine as well a corrupt doctor, whose honesty or integrity has thoroughly “burst,” assuring you he could fix it! Paying a real physician to fix the mistakes of the dishonest quack could bankrupt you if you didn’t have good medical insurance, causing your bank account to “burst,” spilling out all your money. You might feel like irrupting or “bursting” suddenly into that quack’s office and demanding your money back!

I think that we have now routed or “burst” through any difficulties with rupt, so your reading will no longer be disrupted by lack of knowledge when you encounter a word with the root rupt in it!

  1. disrupt: “burst” apart
  2. interrupt: “burst” between or among
  3. irrupt: “burst” in
  4. rout: a “bursting” through something again and again

re (thing): real, surreal, 

rect (guided, ruled, put right, right): correct, direct, erect, rectangle, rectify, rectitude, erectile

reg (rule, guide, direct) reign, regime, region, regiment, regimen, regulate, regnant, regent, regal, regalia, regicide


rest (stay put, stand still): arrest, rest, restive (restless),

rid (laugh at): ridicule, deride, 

riv (stream): river, rivulet, arrive, derive, rival, rivalry, unrivaled, riparian, arriviste, derivative, 

rog (ask, request): arrogate, arrogant, abrogate, surrogate, derogate, prerogative,  prorogue, rogue, roguish, roguery

rotund (round)

  • orotund

    An orotund voice is full, strong, and imposing—and can tend towards being pompous or overly showy.

  • rote

    memorization by repetition

  • rotundity

    the roundness of a 3-dimensional object

  • round

    wind around

  • roundabout

    marked by obliqueness or indirection in speech or conduct


Intense Prefixes

Some prefixes highly emphasize roots of words to which they are attached, and are known as intensive prefixes. These prefixes can effectively be translated as “thoroughly” to highlight their intensive function. Today we will talk about the prefixes re- and de-, which can both act as intensive prefixes.

The prefix re-, which can mean “back” or “again,” can also mean “thoroughly” when it acts as an intensive. For instance, the word resplendent means “thoroughly” shining or bright. If the word were “splendent,” it would simply mean “shining;” adding the intensive prefix re- onto “splendent” transforms the root “shine” into “thoroughly” shining, or “very” bright.

Let’s take a look at a couple more examples using the intensive prefix re-. When a person is reticent, she is “thoroughly” silent because she is unwilling to share information about something. A musician’s repertoire is that list of music which he has “thoroughly” produced. And what do you do when you show a great deal of resolve? You “thoroughly” loosen or untie yourself toward the completion of a goal that you have set.

A second example of an intensive is the prefix de-. While de- can mean “off” or “from,” it can also be used as an intensive, again usefully translated as “thoroughly.” For instance, when a fruit becomes desiccated, it has become “thoroughly” dried out. When you make a declaration, you make something “thoroughly” clear so that no one can mistake your meaning. A desolate person is “thoroughly” alone or lonely, whereas a desolate place is “thoroughly” remote, that is, by itself. When you demonstrate the effectiveness of something, you “thoroughly” show it. A deluge can “thoroughly” wash or bathe the land with all the rain that comes with it. And a depraved criminal? He is evil “through and through,” or “thoroughly” evil.

Prefixes, when they act as intensives, emphasize and heighten the force of the primary meanings of words. Strive to recognize intensive prefixes, and you will “thoroughly” improve your vocabulary prowess!

  1. resplendent: ‘thoroughly’ shining
  2. reticent: ‘thoroughly’ silent
  3. repertoire: music ‘thoroughly’ learned
  4. resolve: ‘thoroughly’ loosen or untie
  5. desiccated: ‘thoroughly’ dried out
  6. declare: make ‘thoroughly’ clear
  7. desolate: ‘thoroughly’ alone, lonely, or remote
  8. demonstrate: ‘thoroughly’ show
  9. deluge: ‘thoroughly’ washes or bathes
  10. depraved: ‘thoroughly’ evil

Red-: back, again

  • redound

    If an action or situation redounds to your credit or discredit, it gives people a good or poor opinion of you and produces a result that benefits or hurts you.

  • redundant

    If something is redundant, it exceeds what is necessary or is needlessly wordy or repetitive.

  • redeem

    save from sins

-rium: place for; thing used for

  • moratorium

    A moratorium on a particular activity or process is an official agreement to stop it temporarily.

  • aquarium

    a tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals

  • auditorium

    the area of a theater or concert hall where the audience sits

  • crematorium

    a mortuary where corpses are cremated

  • emporium

    a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise

  • natatorium

    pool that provides a facility for swimming

  • planetarium

    a building housing an instrument for projecting the positions of the planets onto a domed ceiling

  • sanatorium

    a hospital for recuperation or for the treatment of chronic diseases

  • terrarium

    a vivarium in which selected living plants are kept and observed

  • vivarium

    an indoor enclosure for keeping and raising living animals and plants and observing them under natural conditions

-ry: act or practice

  • sophistry

    Sophistry is the clever use of arguments that seem correct but are in fact unsound and misleading, used with the intent to deceive people.

  • revelry

    Revelry is a festive celebration that includes wild, noisy, and happy dancing, eating, and drinking.

  • chemistry

    the science of matter

  • dentistry

    the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth

  • devilry

    wicked and cruel behavior

  • heraldry

    the study and classification of armorial bearings and the tracing of genealogies

  • palmistry

    telling fortunes by lines on the palm of the hand

  • wizardry

    exceptional creative ability

Leave a Reply