Goal: reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
Work: mimic and edit; every good essay is like a fine product which has gone through tons of modifications.
Caution! Order of a writer’s thought flow vs the order of reader
Key: Define and relate
Every thing you say has to be linked to your topic. You need to understand and show the links between each concepts – logic.
Hints: Take “Regulation on Social Media” as an example. Research vertically (historically) – e.g. traditional social media vs social media and horizontally – e.g. comparing regulations on traditional media to see the need for social media.
Context and Audience (readers):
Concepts: think them through; define if needed
Opinions or arguments: others’ and/or yours
Evidence: facts and stories/experiences, survey, statistics, etc.
Readers should be able to see your opinions/arguments, apart from your evidence.
Note: Opinion vs evidence
Analysis on cause
Like in a math proof:
Topic (goal, concepts and relationships)
Logic: links between the concepts and relationships.
Rhythm of sentences: Mainly complex, separated by a simple sentence here and there.
Important places in a sentence: its beginning and end: so
- main verbs: passive vs active; reverse order; Stress
- use inserted phrase to mention unimportant stuff;
- unimportant verbs made into complements or a clause.
Conjunction words to show your logic
Start a sentence with varied subjects:
- inanimate subjects,
- it (form subject),
- there is/are …
Formal nouns to replace verbs, adverbs
The Sporting Spirit, Trading Standards
- Analyze Topic (Define)
- Opinion to be opposed
- Own opinion
- Evidence, arguments, examples
- Suggestions, solutions etc.
Ideas / thoughts: concepts, opinions, arguments (reasons, reasoning), logic – links between concepts and between opinions and arguments
Your idea is + adj.
- bright, brilliant, clever, excellent, good, great, marvelous | valuable, worthwhile | exciting, inspirational, interesting, stimulating | constructive, positive | creative, imaginative, innovative, original | wacky | big
- | alternative
- | original, fresh, new | absurd, bad, mistaken, ridiculous | crackpot, crazy, mad, outlandish, wild | half-baked | ambitious, big, grand
- | grandiose | basic
You + v. + idea
- | come up with, dream up, hit on/upon, produce, think up
- | draw, get
- | contribute, input | moot, put forward | promote, push (forward), sell
- | welcome
- | consider, entertain, flirt with, toy with
- | mull over, turn over
- | encourage, generate
- | stifle
- | reject, scoff at, veto | test, try out | bounce around, bounce off sb, brainstorm, discuss, explore, talk about
- | exchange, pool, share | give sb
- | apply, implement, put into action/effect/practice
- | transform, translate
- | steal
- | impose
idea + v.
- come into sb’s head/mind, come to sb, flash across/into sb’s mind/brain, hit sb, occur to sb, pop into sb’s head, strike sb
- | emerge, evolve, form, grow
- | flow
- | come from sb/sth, date back from/to sth, originate, start, stem from sth
- | blossom, work (out)T
- | lead
- | come to nothing
personal opinions for/against
Have you defined / understood your concepts clearly?
clear / profound understanding
arguments: logic / reasoning / justification
- powerful, sound, strong, valid | compelling, conclusive, convincing, persuasive | plausible
- spurious, tenuous, weak | balanced
- clear and smooth, unobstructed,
- out of focus, flawed, beyond my understanding
- confusing, muddled, chaotic, disordered
- 连贯： coherent, consistent, lucid, articulate,
- intelligible, comprehensible, joined-up
adequate considerations / exploitation in various cases/situations actual, concrete, real/real-life;