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English: Nouns

discover = make an interesting discovery of 

    • use = make the best use of …
    • describe = make a vivid description of 
    • investigate = make a thorough investigation of 
    • summarize = make a comprehensive summary of 
    • analyze = make a detailed analysis of 
    • attempt = make an attempt to, make an effort to 
    • study = make a study of …
    • contribute = make great contributions to …


To get a full appreciation of what this means, we must first turn to some recent human inventions. (Bats) 

come to a stop / halt = stop / halt
Bruce charged at it, but in the middle, the car came to a grinding halt.
come to a stop / halt = stop / halt
come to an end = end
come to a close = close
come to a decision = decide
come to a conclusion = conclude

receive + n. 受到……; 得到……;遭到……
No creature has received more praise and abuse than the common garden snail.

receive insults
receive support
receive adequate treatment
receive good education
This exhibition received a great deal of attention in the press, …


  • permit sb. to do
    allow sb. to do
    give sb. permission to do
  • consider = give careful consideration to …

cross the pass on foot
= walk across the pass
cross the pass in cars
= drive across the pass
row across the Caribbean
= cross the Caribbean by boat



I am fascinated by the story.
So the story is fascinating.
be / find … endlessly fascinating
This city is endlessly fascinating.
I find the natural world endlessly fascinating.
have a … fascination for …
The story has a great fascination for me.
Mars has an extraordinary fascination for would-be voyagers.
For him, caves have the same peculiar fascination which high mountains have for the climber.

His speech had a great impact on me.

have sth in common = share sth.

  • All these cats had one experience in common: they had fallen off high buildings, yet only eight of them died from shock or injuries.

All these cats shared one experience: …

intent to do / mean to do / be going to do

have every intention of doing 

  • not intend to = have no intention of doing 
  • understand = have a full understanding of 
  • object = have a strong objection to 

lay/put special emphasis / stress on …

The report specially stresses that it is necessary to eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
The report lays special stress on the necessity of consuming adequate fresh fruit and vegetables.

Mom or dad, of course, provides a regular supply of pocket-money, but uncles and aunts are always a source of extra income.

The officer went through the case with great care.
He had spotted a tiny bottle at the bottom of my case and he pounced on it with delight. Then I added with a smile.
His few material possessions make it possible for him to move from place to place with ease.

  • She faced the difficulty calmly. 
  • She faced the difficulty with calmness. 
  • I look at her curiously.
  • I look at her with curiosity. 
  • She spoke to me tenderly.
  • She spoke to me with tenderness.
  • I greeted Philip enthusiastically.
  • I greeted Philip with enthusiasm.

for the simple reason that … = simply because …

because … =

  • for the reason that …
  • because of the fact that …
  • due to the fact that … 
  • on account of the fact that …

although … = 

  • in spite of the fact that …
  • despite the fact that …

Giant pandas are frequently referred to as “living fossils” for the simple reason that they have lived on earth for over 200 million years. 

Despite the fact that the bottle is tinted a delicate shade of green, an observant visitor would soon notice that it is filled with what looks like a thick, grayish substance. 

Uncountable Nouns are substances, concepts, materials, information… that we cannot divide into separate elements. They can’t be counted.

food, clothing, shelter and transportation are basic necessities of daily life. 

450 uncountable nouns

Nouns that can be both countable and uncountable

List for people, animals, things, food and drinks



human being c.n. 

man, mankind, humankind, human race


individual – collective (u.c)

jewel 􏰃 jewelry / jewellery
scene 􏰃 scenery
machine 􏰃 machinery
weapon 􏰃 weaponry
poem 􏰃 poetry
novel 􏰃 fiction
myth 􏰃 mythology
leaf 􏰃 foliage
table / chair … 􏰃 furniture
pen / pencil … 􏰃 stationery

trunk / suitcase … 􏰃 luggage / baggage

Group – un, cn. 

  • family
  • class
  • staff
  • The hospital’s medical staff is / are excellent. teaching staff
  • engineering staff
    domestic staff
    Though my aunt pursued what was, in those days, an enlightened policy, in that she never allowed her domestic staff to work more than eight hours a day, she was extremely difficult to please.
    Already, orientals and Asian Americans constitute the majority of the engineering staffs at many Valley firms.
  • foul, fish, cattle, deer, flock, herb

cattle – people

  • the jeweler’s
  • the tailor’s
  • the butcher’s
  • the stationer’s
  • the grocer’s
  • the baker’s
  • the barber’s
  • the chemist’s
  • We spent the weekend at Mr. Green’s (house).

    He graduated from St. John’s (University).
    Joe lives near St. Paul’s (Cathedral) in London.

  • a flock of sheep / pigeons
  • a herd of cattle / deer / elephants
  • a drove of horses / cattle / sheep
  • a pack of wolves / tigers / lions
  • a pride of lions
  • a swarm of flies / bees
  • a colony of ants / termites
  • a school / shoal of fish

party: group / bunch / crowd / band

team, gang delegation galaxy

  • the Aegean island of Kea
    the promontory of Ayia Irini
    the tiny village of Perachora
  • life at the monastery
    life on a desert island
    life in the army
    life on campus
  • He shaped the clay into a vase. 
  • Like it or not, our experiences shape our personalities. 
  • He thundered at the door. 
  • The street was veiled in darkness. 
  • A gust of wind whipped the dust along the road. 


a heavy big round new black Chinese wooden dining table
a nice cup of tea
a beautiful stretch of field
a stagnant pool of water

police, posterity, 

manner, manners

brain, brains