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English: Writing

Sentence opening is very important to create sentence variety.




1) 无灵主语开头,复合句。
There was a time when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago had to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for ‘protection’.

2) 条件状语从句开头,复合句。
If the money was not paid promptly, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop.

3) 无灵主语开头,简单句。

Obtaining ‘protection money’ is not a modern crime.

4) 介词短语作时间状语开头,复合句。

As long ago as the 14th century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.

5) 副词短语作时间状语开头,复合句。
Six hundred years ago, Sir John Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence.

6) 主谓结构开头,复合句。
He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto.

7) 让步状语从句开头,复合句。
Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded.

8) 介词短语作时间状语开头,复合句。
In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away if protection money was paid to them.

9) 主谓结构开头,简单句。
Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way.

10) 介词短语作让步状语开头,简单句。
In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.

11) 时间状语从句开头,复合句。
When he died at the age of 80, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a picture painted which was dedicated to the memory of ‘the most valiant soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue’.

While / whereas

  • One man stayed at the wheel while two others with black stocking over their faces jumped out and smashed the window of the shop with iron bars.
    He must be over 60, while / whereas his wife looks about 30.
    While she is a likable girl, she can be extremely difficult to work with.
    While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxury of their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived of the necessities of life.
    While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers.
    While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments.
    While Washington and Jefferson privately expressed distaste for slavery, they also understood that it was part of the political and economic bedrock of the country they helped to create.

moreover, further / furthermore, in addition

besides, What is more, additionally

that is (to say); more exactly

Stranger still, worse still, better still, to make matters / things worse, 

let alone … | not mention to …


Several cases have been reported in Russia recently of people who can read and detect colors with their fingers, or even see through solid doors and walls.

We can read of things that happened 50,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write.

He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous, but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect for elders — as if mere age were a reason for respect.

If we glimpse the unutterable, it is unwise to try to utter it, nor should we seek to invest with significance that which we cannot grasp. 

What is an intellectual? I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic way about moral problems. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by the Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.