Whether we find a joke funny or not largely depends on where we have been brought up. The sense of humour is mysteriously bound up with national characteristics. A Frenchman, for instance, might find it hard to laugh at a Russian joke. In the same way, a Russian might fail to see anything amusing in a joke which would make an Englishman laugh to tears.
Most funny stories are based on comic situations. In spite of national differences, certain funny situations have a universal appeal. No matter where you live, you would find it difficult not to laugh at, say, Charlie Chaplin’s early films. However, a new type of humour, which stems largely
from America, has recently come into fashion. It is cal1ed’ sick humour ‘. Comedians base their jokes on tragic situations like violent death or serious accidents. Many people find this sort of joke distasteful. The following example of ‘sick humour’ will enable you to judge for yourself.
A man who had broken his right leg was taken to hospital a few weeks before Christmas. From the moment he arrived there, he kept on pestering his doctor to tell him when he would be able to go home. He dreaded having to spend Christmas in hospital. Though the doctor did his best, the patient’s recovery was slow. On Christmas day, the man still had his right leg in plaster. He spent a miserable day in bed thinking of all the fun he was missing. The following day, however, the doctor consoled him by telling him that his chances of being able to leave hospital in time for New Year celebrations were good. The man took heart and, sure enough, on New
Year’s Eve he was able to hobble along to a party. To compensate for his unpleasant experiences in hospital, the man drank a little more than was good for him. In the process, he enjoyed himself thoroughly and kept telling everybody how much he hated hospitals. He was still mumbling something about hospitals at the end of the party when he slipped on a piece of ice and broke his left leg.
大部分令人发笑的故事都是根据喜剧情节编写的。尽管民族不同，有些滑稽的情节却能产生普遍的效 果。比如说，不管你生活在哪里，你看查理 .卓别林的早期电影很难不发笑。然而，近来一种新式幽默流行 了起来，这种幽默主要来自美国。它被叫作“病态幽默”。喜剧演员根据悲剧情节诸如暴死，重大事故等 来编造笑话。 许多人认为这种笑话是低级庸俗的。下面是个“病态幽默”的实例， 你可据此自己作出判断。
largely [‘lɑ:dʒli] adv. 在很大程度上，主要地 largely: to a great extent; chiefly
His success was largely due to his hard work.
The theory was largely adopted.
mostly: in most cases
We’re mostly out on weekends.
comic [‘kɒmɪk] adj. 喜剧的;可笑的
funny amusing diverting
farcicalfarce buffoonery shenanigan
universal [ju:nɪ’vɜ:sl] adj. 普遍的
global – international – world-wide
English has now become an international language. Therefore, if you have a good command of this language, you hold the key to success.
It is universally known that …
comedian [kə’mi:diən]n. 喜剧演员，丑角
comedian comedienne comedy
tragedian tragedienne tragedy
leading role / part – protagonist
leading man – hero
leading lady – heroine
supporting role – extra
adj. 讨厌的，令人不愉快的 be distasteful to sb.
It is distasteful to me to say this, but ……
I hate to say this, but ……
disgusting – disgust
revolting – revolt
repellent – repel
repulsive – repulse
pester sb. for sth.
pester sb. with sth.
He pestered me with complaints.
He pestered me for money.
recovery [rɪ’kʌvərɪ] v. 恢复原状;康复 recovery from …
recovery from illness
recovery from defeat
recover – restore – regain
console sb. for sth.
console sb. with sth.
I consoled him for the loss of money.
I consoled him with money.
comfort a dying man
soothe a crying baby
calm sb. down
condole with sb.
The widow’s friends condoled with her at the funeral.
compensate (sb.) for sth.
Nothing can compensate (him) for his loss.
more than compensate for …
His rise in status more than compensates for the loss of money.
make up for …
1.1 Whether we find a joke funny or not largely depends on where we have been brought up.
表示“是否”时不能用 if 的几种情况:
If she likes the present is not clear to me. X
It is not clear to me if / whether she likes the present. √
Whether she likes the present is not clear to me. √
The question is if we have enough money. X
The question is whether we have enough money. √
You have yet to answer my question if I can count on your help. X
You have yet to answer my question whether I can count on your help. √ 4、作介词宾语时
He was worrying about if he had hurt her feelings. X
He was worrying about whether he had hurt her feelings. √
I don’t know if to see my doctor today. X
I don’t know whether to see my doctor today. √
6、直接跟 or not 时
Please tell me if or not you agree. X
Please tell me whether or not you agree. √
Please tell me if you agree or not. √
depend on …
rest on …
ride on …
hinge on …
lean on …
be dependent on …
be based on …
be built on …
be founded on …
be decided by …
be dictated by …
be determined by …
Whether you find a joke funny or not largely rests / relies / rides / hinges / leans on where we have been brought up.
Whether you find a joke funny or not is largely dependent / based / built / founded on where we have been brought up.
Whether you find a joke funny or not is largely decided / dictated / determined by where we have been brought up.
bring up sb.
He was brought up by his step-mother.
foster / adopt sb.
be brought up to do
The sad truth is that most of us have been brought up to eat certain foods and we stick to them all our lives.
We have been brought up to fear insects.
1.2 The sense of humor is mysteriously bound up with national characteristics.
the sense of pride
the sense of honor
the sense of accomplishment
the sense of responsibility
the sense of superiority
the sense of inferiority
be bound up with …
be closely connected with …
Everyone’s future is bound up with the destiny of the Chinese nation.
be bound to do …
On our road ahead, we are bound to meet with difficulties.
be / feel bound to do …
I felt bound to tell him the truth.
be / feel obliged to do …
However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.
bind sb. to do
The Kyoto Protocol binds each country to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
1.3 A Frenchman, for instance, might find it hard to laugh at a Russian joke.
the English / British
1.4 In the same way, a Russian might fail to see anything amusing in a joke which would make an Englishman laugh to tears.
- in the same way
- by the same token
laugh to tears
be bored to tears / death
laugh one’s head off
… which would make an Englishman laugh his head off.
clap one’s hands off
cry one’s eyes out
A mother takes twenty years to make a man of her boy, and another woman makes a fool of him in twenty minutes.
Men always want to be a woman’s first love; women have a more subtle instinct: what they like is to be a man’s last romance.
2.1 Most funny stories are based on comic situations.
2.2 In spite of national differences, certain comic situations have a universal appeal.
universal: international, global, world-wide
appeal: attraction, charm, fascination
an international attraction
a global charm
a world-wide fascination
appeal to sb.
The idea never appealed to me very much, …
attract / charm / fascinate sb.
Cats never fail to fascinate human beings.
2.3 No matter where you live, you would find it difficult not to laugh at, say, Charlie Chaplin’s early films.
Wherever you live, ……
Whoever wants to sign up for the course is welcome. √
No matter who wants to sign up for the course is welcome. X
No matter who wants to sign up for the course, he is welcome.√
Whatever project he works on is always successful.
No matter what project he works on, it is always successful.
Why don’t we have a break until, (let’s) say, 10:45?
Say / Let’s say (that) the journey takes three hours, you’ll arrive at 2 o’clock.
2.4 However, a new type of humor, which stems largely from US, has recently come into fashion.
- Stem from…
- originate in …
- have its roots in. ..
Printing originates in / stems from / has its roots in China
arise from …
The argument arose from misunderstanding.
come / hail from …
I come / hail from China.
come into fashion
Miniskirts have come into fashion.
be in fashion
be out of fashion
fashionable clothes / ideas / hairstyles …
come into use
Computers first came into use in the early 1950s.
come into effect
The new seat-belt regulations came into effect last week.
come into blossom
The trees are late coming into blossom this year.
come into being
Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, …
2.5 Comedians build their jokes on tragic situations …
Comedians found their jokes on tragic situations …
2.6 Many people find this sort of joke unpleasant / disgusting / repellent / revolting / repulsive.
Many people dislike / hate / despise / abhor / detest / loathe / abominate this sort of joke.
This sort of joke repels / revolts / repulses / disgusts / sickens many people.
2.7 The following example of ‘sick humor’ will enable you to judge for yourself.
the following example
the ensuing example
the under-mentioned example
the example below
the previous example
the preceding example
the above-mentioned example
the example above
enable sb. to do
They devise hundreds of competitions which will enable us to win huge sums of money.
allow / permit sb. to do
make it possible for sb. to do
Radio and television have made it possible for advertisers to capture the attention of millions of people in this way.
… will allow / permit you to judge for yourself.
… will make it possible for you to judge for yourself.
do sth for oneself
So great is our passion for doing things for ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labor.
3.1 A man who had broken his right leg was taken to hospital a few weeks before Christmas.
A man whose right leg had been broken ……
take sb. to hospital
send sb. to hospital
go to hospital
be in hospital = be hospitalized
the outpatient department (OPD)
the inpatient department (IPD)
casualty emergency room (ER)
3.2 From the moment he arrived there, he kept on pestering his doctor to tell him when he would be able to go home.
From the moment when / at which / … he arrived there
Since the moment he arrived there, he had kept on pestering … keep (on) doing
Why do you keep (on) making the same mistakes?
How can I explain if you keep (on) interrupting me?
3.3 He dreaded having to spend Christmas in hospital.
dread + n. / doing
She dreads getting old.
dread to do
I dread to think what will happen if I fail.
She dreads to get old. X
3.4 Though the doctor did his best, the patient’s recovery was slow.
do / try one’s best to do
do / try one’s utmost to do
do everything / all one can to do
give one’s all to do
spare no effort to do
go all out to do
go to great lengths to do
The man went to great lengths to prove that the diamonds were real.
3.5 On Christmas day, the man still had his right leg in plaster.
on Christmas Day
on Easter Day
at Christmas at Easter
The only regular visitors to the monastery in winter are parties of skiers who go there at Christmas and Easter.
…, the man’s right leg was still in plaster.
3.6 He spent a miserable day in bed thinking of all the fun he was missing.
3.7 The following day, however, the doctor consoled him by telling him that his chances of being able to leave hospital in time for new year celebrations were good.
As she is not rich, the chances that she will ever be able to afford such purchases are remote; but she is never sufficiently strong-minded to be able to stop the practice.
one’s chances of doing … / the chances that …
- are good / high
- are small/slight / remote
His chances of winning the game are remote.
The chances that he will win the game are remote.
3.8 The man took heart and, sure enough, on New Year’s Eve he was able to hobble along to a party.
take heart = be encouraged
lose one’s heart to …
3.9 To compensate for his unpleasant experiences in hospital, the man drank a little more than was good for him.
It seems that man was making a real effort to understand the seasons 20,000 years earlier than has been supposed.
The project requires more labor than ____ because it is extremely difficult.
- has been put in
- have been put in
- being put in
- to be put in
We often advise him not to drink more wine ______ is good for his health.
A. as B. than C. that D. but
The experiment requires more money than _____.
- have been put in
- being put in
- has been put in
- to be put in
The indoor swimming pool seems to be a great deal more luxurious than _____.
- is necessary
- being necessary
- to be necessary
- it is necessary
3.9 In the process, he enjoyed himself thoroughly and kept telling everybody how much he hated hospitals.
…, he had a good / great time …
… kept telling everybody to what extent he hated hospitals.
— To what extent do you love her?
— I’ll die for her.
3.10 He was still mumbling something about hospitals at the end of the party when he slipped on a piece of ice and broke his left leg.
主句 (进行时 /be about to do)+when…“when”应译为“这时”或“突然”
The idea never appealed to me very much, but one day, after a heavy shower, I happened to be walking in my garden when I noticed a huge number of snails taking a stroll on some of my prize plants.
The Karen had been sailing in a convoy to Russia when she was torpedoed by an enemy submarine.
The morning passed rapidly and Frank was about to leave when he noticed a large packing case lying on the floor.
slip on a piece of ice
trip over a stone
a slip of the pen
a slip of the tongue